Erinnerung | Memory - Part 39

posted by PP on 2006/03/21 00:34

[ Erinnerung | Memory ]

The Program of the 8th International Symposium of the Department of Musicology and Ethnomusicology (Faculty of Music, University of Arts in Belgrade) on
Musical culture and memory (Belgrade, April 11-14, 2006)
was already published here as well as the Abstracts (Part I). So here we go for Part II of the ABSTRACTS, edited by Tatjana Marković and Zdravko Blažeković: ...

Sonja Marinković, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Ideology of National Historiography
History of national music is a studying subject at the Faculty of Music Art in Belgrade since 1994, when the courses about Yugoslav music were replaced with ones on Serbian music. But the idea of special care of the national musical tradition was not new and I will attempt to analyze various ideological aspects of its manifestation in different periods of Serbian history of music.

Tatjana Marković, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
From Cultural Memory to Multiplying National Identities
Culture can be defined as a coded set of texts characterizing a cultural community in a given historical and social context, built/inherited through tradition within language, and based on common memory. Cultural memory is the main signifier of a national culture, which is inevitably connected with the common identity. The concept of national identity is a concept constructed at the end of eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century, with the aim at establishing Volk from Bevölkerung. Constructing national identity contains autocommunication, a form of cultural memory, bringing forth the central collection of myths and symbols of a given culture. Producing myths and symbols of itself, (national) culture makes auto-portraits of itself through the autocommunication, and this self-portrait of the culture "reflects the texture of the culture, and begins to acquire a certain kind of universality" (Lotman).
This complex process leading from building national culture, national identity through a common memory to the universality will be examined through the case study of Serbian culture, formed under the influences of (Viennese) diaspora. The beginning of this process was marked by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić’s collections of folk songs as well as a dictionary and grammar of reformed Serbian language, published in Vienna. Beside authors, such as Goethe or brothers Grimm, for instance, numerous European composers were inspired by Serbian folk songs. Among them were Johannes Brahms, Antonín Dvořák, Petr Il'ič Čajkovskij, Hans Huber, Anton Rubinštajn, Max Reger, Leoš Janáček. Therefore, the constructing of different (music) national identities will be considered via music settings of Serbian folk poetry, ranging from the Russian "romans", mazurka, to Ländler, or kind of yodeling.

Marija Masnikosa, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Post-minimal Music: Memories of the Referent
After the experience of autistic avant-garde minimalism, a movement which erased every single trace of the past, musical post-minimalism escapes from the state of cultural amnesia activating the fragments of its "phylogenetic" memory. Traces of some older or different musical discourses, penetrating minimal processes, create a symbiotic, "mutually beneficial relationship" between the selected musical past and repetitive musical present. Post-minimal music creates its identity by choosing recollections and "inscribing" them in its specific repetitive musical discourse.
Above the incoherent post-minimal repetitive processes the "ruins" or the "forgotten" principles of musical tradition can be heared: tonality, traditional forms, familiar citations, popular music patterns and different expressive genres. When no concrete "recollections" exist, the discourse of Post-Minimal music simulate the "images" and principles of the musical past, trying to convince the listener that there is no difference between the memories and simulacra.
Moreover, beyond the allegorical space of borrowed or simulated symbols and icons, there is one more kind of recollection in post-minimal music - the spontaneous musical gestures as the indexes of pure musical expression. In our time of "novel and ignored subjectivities", captured in the machine of the "repetitive society", these musical gestures revive our memories of the subject capable to feel and to express itself beyond the field of serial production of controlled differences.
More broadly, all these signifiers - traces of musical tradition, different signs standing for the various fragments of the musical past, expressive gestures and simulacra - inscribed in the discourse of post-minimal music, exist, as the specific (postmodern) memories of the Referent.

Gianluigi Mattietti, Università di Cagliari
Neurosis of the Contemporary Society in the Italian Music Theater of the Sixties: Luciano Berio, Aldo Clementi, Franco Evangelisti
The music theatre of the 1960s in Italy was an important field of innovation in the music language, experimentation of new forms, far from the tradition of the opera and from the idea of a narrative plot. Allowing to symbolize some contradictions of the human being in the contemporary society, the attempt to unify different languages (music, painting, cinema, theatre) on the stage in a new performance was the starting point of Collage (1961) by Aldo Clementi, music play based on visual material by Achille Perilli. It represents the alchemical myth of the "homuncolus" springing out form the chaos, the birth of the human being followed in his contact with the reality, the movement, the sound, the society which destroy him. There are no characters, but only a pantomime play, with some cinematographic inserts, and without a direct relationship between music and theatre. The pantomime Die Schachtel (1963) by Franco Evangelisti, an acoustic-visual performance for mimes, voice, projections, chamber orchestra and tape (on a subject by Franco Nonnis) is another attempt to represent different features of the contemporary society through seven musical structures. A typical no-story is also Passaggio (1963) by Luciano Berio, based on a text by Edoardo Sanguineti. It represent the "passage" of the sole heroine through the six stations of a profane "via crucis".

Ivana Medić, Radio-Beograd, Treći program
In Search for the Material Traces of Music
The studies of material culture are defined as a new, post-semiotic approach in archaeological research, which aims at investigating the relationships among humans and material objects in the context of the cultural studies. Archeology is thus defined as a discipline, which explores the material culture as a manifestation of the structured symbolic practices, which are meaningfully constituted and positioned in relation to the society. This relationship is interpreted as an active and complex one. Although the studies of material culture originate from archeology, they are actually an interdisciplinary scientific area, which can (and should) function as a point where different humanistic sciences could be (re)integrated. My study presents an attempt to apply this kind of analysis in the realm of musicology, i.e. to examine how local musicologists use material traces to reconstruct Serbian musical past.

Milena Medić, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Elektra's Memory: From Hysteria to Cultural History
Elektra's story is a counter-oedipal tale about virginal daughter whose life is subjugated to her father's will (law). Elektra's obsessive and hysterical directedness to revenge and matercide, originated in and is conducted by the paternal (patriarchal) memory, suggested in Agamemnon's name, and is ended in the catarctic and triumphant death dance. As a totally imprisoned and erotically blocked daughter who refused the responsibility of the motherhood and family, what is suggested by her vary Greek name, Elektra reveals herself as one of the manifestations of the fin-de-siècle cultural history of the female hysterics that accomplished the nineteenth century process of women's oppression, degeneration and invalidation by male bearers of culture and science. In that broad historical and cultural context of progress and evolution, Elektra is not only an integral part of that extensive, essentially misoginystic and regressive, image of the degenerative, insane, wild, sadistic woman who collapses in death, but at the same time, she is an part of the emergent process of the emancipation of woman through her insensitivity to motherhood, domesticity, and after all feminity. Hugo von Hofmannsthal's verse drama (1905) and Richard Strauss's opera (1908) appeared, among many memorable theatrical works (dramas and operas) that staged such female characters, in the dramatic moment of the historical conjunction of the two major reactive developments - male myzoginy and female emancipation, psychoanalysis and feminism. In article I investigate the relationships of dramatic and musical articulations of the causal nexus between memory, hysteria and culture.

Vesna Mikić, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
The Way We (Just Me, Myself and I) Were: Recycling (National) Identities in Recent Popular Music
This paper aims at considering the role of marketing policy in the construction/recycling of (national) identities primarily through popular songs represented Serbia and Montenegro at the Eurovision Song Contests 2004 and 2005. I will examine musical, textual, and visual aspects contributing to the popularity of these songs, bearing in mind that the means by which we construct the picture of ourselves is a desired or expected construction indicating the way we think that we were, we are, or we should be. The special attention will be paid to the technical and administrative details of national and Eurovision Song Contests, i.e. the tele-voting system, acting in some respects as actual indicator of political situation, market’s demands, forming its own "zones", "boundaries", and "states". As a specific, paradox counterpart to the recycling of national identities, obvious in some recent musical products of memory of ex-Yugoslavia and Tito, will be mentioned too.
Has the "pulls" of the market embodied at Eurovision Song Contest, show the fact that the recycled Yugoslav products are an official form of establishing of a new and joint marketing zone?

Balázs Mikusi, Cornell University; Ithaca
An "Invented Tradition" for an "Imagined Community": Secular Choral Singing in Nineteenth-Century Germany
While secular choral singing assumed great importance in the musical life of nineteenth-century Germany, the part-song repertory is all but ignored in modern music history textbooks. No doubt, this omission is primarily due to the genre's strong political associations: many of the overtly nationalistic texts have inevitably seemed inappropriate for most post-1945 musicologists. By contrast, the early twentieth century gave rise to an impressive series of scholarly works on the topic, all of which drew inspiration from Otto Elben's pioneering Der volksthümliche deutsche Männergesang: Geschichte und Stellung im Leben der Nation (1855; 2nd edition 1887). As Elben's subtitle to some extent foreshadowed, these authors sought to provide the genre with a history that would confirm its contemporary importance "in the life of the nation": the obvious convivial precedents (the ubiquitous drinking-songs) are more or less ignored; on the other hand, possible connections to earlier "national" music (like the Minnesang, or even the Teutonic bardic songs as described by Tacit) are given great emphasis. I propose to read these "myths of origin" in the light of modernist analyses of nationalism. Benedict Anderson's interpretation of the nation as an "imagined community" sheds light on the steadily rising popularity of the Gesangvereine in mid-nineteenth-century Germany, while Eric Hobsbawm's work illuminates how the creation of such a consistently elevated and "authentically German" prehistory seemed useful in legitimizing an essentially "invented tradition".

Melita Milin, Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti, Muzikološki institut, Beograd
"Ancestral Memories" in the Works of Ljubica Marić
The Serbian composer Ljubica Marić (1909-2003) often expressed her feelings of close connectedness with her native soil and anonymous people living on it in the past. Those sentiments had nothing nostalgic or patriotic in character, but were wider based on her intuitive grasping of the fate of numerous unknown individuals inhabiting our tiny part of the world through centuries. She was primarily impressed by diverse traces of creativity those "ancestors" of her had left in the areas of building (medieval monasteries), visual arts (frescos), literature (not only "official" writings, but also spontaneously written texts such as notes made on the margins of the books that were being copied), and, of course, music (folk and church music). While Marić's early works, composed in the 1930s, show a radical break with the past - in keeping with the dominant spirit of the times - her mature compositions from the 1950s and later gained in expression and meaningfulness through their composer's establishing closer links with the local cultural heritage. The paper will explore different aspects of the presence of those "ancestral memories" in Ljubica Marić's works, ranging from quotations to discreet allusions.

David L. Mosley, University of Louisville, Kentucky
Music in Service of Life: Friedrich Nietzsche's Cultural Acoustics
A great deal of scholarly attention has been paid to the first half of Nietzsche's Unzeitgemäße Betrachtungen: Vom Nutzen und Nachtheil der Historie für das Leben, however the musical metaphors in essay's second half, along with the acoustic and musical principles which inform them, are yet to be carefully addressed. This presentation will focus on the heterodox term 'Stimmung', and its use in relation to the essay's Historical Virtuoso, the Composer of History, and the Republic of Genius, to further clarify what it might mean to live with the past in an untimely manner. Three conclusions will be drawn: (1) Nietzsche's high valuation of 'Stimmung' can be fully understood only in the context of Hermann Helmholtz's seminal research in acoustics and auditory perception, (2) Jacob Burckhardt's approach to history plays a far more crucial role in the essay than Nietzsche's acknowledges or subsequent commentators have understood, and (3) Nietzsche's application of the term, in this essay and other works from the 1870s, initiates a sustained attempt to posit a physiological basis for epistemology, aesthetics, and culture that he pursued until 1889. While the presentation will include a close reading the essay on history, the trajectory of Nietzsche's evolving conception of 'Stimmung' in subsequent works will also be addressed.

Nadežda Mosusova, Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti, Muzikološki institut, Beograd
The Cherubic Hymn of Stevan Mokranjac - Endless Melody, Enigmatic Harmony
The paper is based on analysis of the widely known part of the Mokranjac' Liturgy in some new contexts and observations.

Karol Mullaney-Dignam, National University of Ireland of Maynooth, Co. Kildare
State, Nation and Music in Ireland: Forging a Musical Culture 1922-1932
This paper will examine the role of the Irish government in creating a framework for developments in musical activity in independent Ireland from 1922 to 1932, and it is based on my research into the political context and location of developments in musical activity in independent Ireland from 1922 to 1952 which attempts to account for a anomalous contemporary Irish situation without a singularly identifiable 'Irish' music or musical homogeny. Whilst conscious of issues central to the development of any new independent polity with a new method of government, attempting to fashion a sense of identity and manage related issues such as the nature, purpose and methods of education, this paper will highlight some of the problems facing the first independent Irish government in defining and dealing with the various traditional/ folk/indigenous and classical/ art/ European-elite forms extant. On the premise that the evolution of Ireland as a modern nation has depended on music as markedly as any other cultural activity, the paper queries the extent of support afforded to the development of musical activity by the exponents of the political ideologies which it helped to foster prior to independence and offers some assessment of attitudes regarding the nature and function of musical activity from the perspective of Irish state and government officials in the 1920s. Government correspondance and the official reports of Irish parliamentary (Dáil) proceedings will be used as primary sources.

Boštjan Narat, Univerza u Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, Ljubljana
Music as a Philosophical Term: Between Semiotics and Hermeneutics
The key goal of the text is to explicate the problem of musical meaning and to find a system, a terminological context, which would allow us to view musical meaning in its presence, as an act of creation and in perceptive relation at the same time. This triple structure lies at the basis of any kind of art and in particularly music, which is due to its very nature, characterized by the dimension of time. The system, which seems suitable for this kind of analysis is the legacy of semiotics. Since the aim of semiotics is building a general theory of music rather then highlighting its particular aspects, it is obvious that the problem of musical meaning will not be solved by placing music in a social, cultural, ritual and similar contexts or looking for help in other areas of semantics. A critical view on this semiotical intention is therefore necessary.
Secondly, the text deals with linking the phenomenon of music with Gadamer's term "play", conceived as a mode of being of a work of art. But since this term can be applied to the theory of music in general it will here be used in a wider sense which is necessary especially if we want to rethink hermeneutics as a possible and meaningful way of analyzing music, not just as a method of interpretation, but also as a tool of defining music as a philosophical term and a generally present phenomenon. It is this rethinking that presents the ultimate goal of the text.

Marta R. Norese, Professional School of Music of Astorga
Lunafardo and Tango in the Search for Argentinian Identity
"Tango is the most spread Argentinian achievement, the one that with insolence has propagated the Argentinian name over the face of the earth" (Jorge L. Borges). That insolent achievement is born in a city created virtually from zero by a population that in the late 1800s only shared the land in which they all lived: Spaniards, Italians, Turks, the French, Germans, Russians, and many others that unite together around one sole language, using the Spanish language as a base: Lunfardo.
According to Gobello, Lunfardo is "a repertoire of terms brought to Buenos Aires in the late 1800s by immigrants, mainly Italians, and that were finally incorporated by the compadrito (street braggarts) to their own language".
From 1917 with "Percanta que me amuraste" from Mi noche triste by Contursi, until 1930 with "Cuando la suerte que es grela / fayando, fayando" from Yira, Yira by Santos Discépolo, there has been a great number of tangos that have been expressed through Lunfardo. This is a syncretic language, a slangy argot which is indispensable to obtain that Argentinian "tanguidad" or state of the tango, like some theorists like to say. It has also played an essential part in accomplishing the "mestiza" type (tango: habanera, milonga), "hybrid" like indicates Ernesto Sábato, making it so rich for this very reason.

Jelena Novak, Radio-Beograd, Treći program, Beograd
Corporeal Rememberance: Singing Body of Opera
The aim of this paper is to theoretize the practices of signification, and strategies of representation of the body in opera. I am pointing to the necessity of changing the understanding of the role of the body in perception and meaning making of the opera, especially in the late twentieth, and the beginning of the twenty first century. I will show how body, through representation of disease, sexuality and death, construct meanings. The way body is represented shows how opera struggled with some of the most rigorous representational conventions and stereotypes. In that process, singing body could be interpreted as a symptom of the representational transgressions, in all of three operatic texts - linguistic, musical and scenic.

Berna Özbilen, Istanbul Technical University, Turkish Music State Conservatory, Istanbul
The Evaluation of the First Ottoman-Turkish Popular Music Kanto, Its Development Process, and Change during 135 Years
The use of the word kanto in Turkey is probably adopted from the itinerant Italian theatres which performed plays and operettas at the end of the nineteenth century in Istanbul. It was born within the process of westernization and modernization movements as a result of city life product in Istanbul. One of the traditional play styles ortaoyunu (center play) adapted into the theatre stages and these are called tuluat (impovised) plays. Kanto appeared on the tuluat theatres and became popular in such an atmosphere when various folks such as Armenians, Istanbul Greeks, Jewish, lived together in the same lands, and shared the common culture. Related to this, the first kanto performers are Armenians and Istanbul Greeks; after the Republic the Muslim performers began to play and sing on the stages. Kanto performers are especially women; the men are only involved to this genre in düetto (duets) performances with a secondary role. Tuluat actors successfully used women's identity for attracting the audience to the theatres. At the beginning of twentieth century, recording companies came to Istanbul and recorded many kantos into the plaques, so they became an auditory product.
As a result of social and cultural conditions change, kanto could not abreast of today, and is defeated to contemporary entertainment understandings. After the tuluat theatre lost its popularity during time, kanto had lost its traditional identity. Beginning from 1970s it has taken a new shape, and modernized version of kanto appeared. Today, it is especially performed in the Ramadan entertainments as a nostalgic genre.

Roksanda Pejović, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Music and Its Function in Society
Researching history of the Serbian music, it is necessary to consider the function of music in society. Aside to some specific features, the function of music in Serbian society was not different than music had in other European societies. After mediaeval songs and plays performed at courts, Serbian citizens in eighteenth century were familiar with some European songs. Music was important in the nineteenth century during the wars with Ottoman invaders, supporting struggles of Serbian people. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries music was a part of Serbian music life organized like European ones, but in the first years after World War II in socialistic context, it slowed down its development. Soon afterwards it was included into various European courses, from traditional to modern streams.

Ivana Perković-Radak, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Musical Culture or/and Lost Memories. Serbian Students at the Conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna
It is well known that some Serbian musicians studied at the Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna (founded in 1812), the first public school of music in this musical center. Among the teachers there were, for example, Antonio Salieri (1750-1825) or Anton Bruckner (1824-1895), and among students prominent place took Guido Adler (1855-1941), Hugo Wolf (1860-1903), or Gustav Mahler (1860-1911). Although a private pupil, Kornelije Stanković (1831-1865) had connections with this institution through Simon Sechter (1788-1867), while Todor Andrejević (1852-1931), Vladimir Đorđević (1869-1938), Petar Krstić (1877-1957), and Petar Stojanović (1877-1957) were regular students there. It is less known that more than thirty Serbian students attended the Wiener Konservatorium, mostly during the last quarter of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Many of them were women studying piano or singing, and their names were hardly mentioned in overviews of Serbian musical history. Did their education have any influence on local musical culture after they returned to their home towns? Some of the Viennese students from Serbia had successful careers, although mostly outside of the Serbian milieu. Among them are Aleksandar Džimić (known as Aleksandar Savin), a member of Wiener Oper and later conductor active in Europe and the United States, and Marko Radosavljević, a flutist at Hofoper Wien. The study is based on material from the archives of Konservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde.

Antoni Pizà, Foundation for Iberian Music, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York
Songs of Themselves: The Tradition of Autobiography in Music or Why Do Composers Write about Themselves?

I celebrate myself, and sing myself,
And what I assume you shall assume,
For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.
(Song of Myself, Walt Whitman)
A sample of autobiographical writings by composers from the fourteenth century to the present shows that personal written records (diaries, memoirs, reminiscences) could serve many purposes, but one in particular above all the rest: composers use autobiography to control the reception and meaning of their musical works. With its emphasis on its life-and-works pattern, autobiography reveals a progressive emergence of two fundamental concepts in Western art music: the concept of author of musical works (the composer) and the notion of work itself (the composition). An examination of the autobiographical accounts by Machaut, Wolkenstein, Dufay, Whythorne, Guerrero, Matteson, Wagner, Stravinsky, and Cage shows that autobiography is indeed an act intended to reassure authorship: by writing an autobiography, composers tell us who they are (their lives), but even more importantly they assert their ownership rights over their musical works by providing an exegesis of the meaning of their works. Autobiographical accounts amount to the attempt to connect back the authors with their work, to make their presence felt, and to avoid the misuse and misinterpretation of their music-misinterpretation in both senses of the word: trying to avoid wrong performances of the music (for autobiographies are often saturated with performing instructions) and, especially, evading a possible wrong exegesis of its wider cultural meaning.

Tijana Popović-Mlađenović, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Music "Language Games" in the Space of Cultural Memory
The decentred space of cultural memory is incarnated this time through three models or worlds of "music" as a game in the sense of an analogy with Wittgenstein's concept of "language games".
Cultural anamnesis. The life activity of one model/one game (M. A. Numminen) is just derived from Wittgenstein's methodic "silence" which is transferred and transfigured from one possible world of philosophy to another possible world of music, in the relationship by which - in which - from which it is tested and "understood" as the memorized presentation of the "linguistic turn" and deconstruction of modern logocentrism through philosophical self-reflection and self-criticism.
Just as "self-reflection and self-criticism of music are expressed within music by musical means" (M. Šuvaković).
Cultural anamnestics. So, practicing music, which is based on self-reflection in the sense of translating one world of music into other, different worlds of music of the tonal system, takes place within the life activity of the model/game (F. Glorieux) as the multitude of traces and skills in transforming the memorized codes...
Anamnestic culture. Thirdly, practicing music, which is based on the self-criticism of originality as the measure of true music, produces the model/game (of the "player" L. Kramer) which is, through the life activity of mimesis mimesis mimesis (the presentation of the presented "revenants" or multiplication of /cracked/ mirrors), related to memory, belongs to memory that returns after death/absence, confirms the continuity of memory or, to put it simply, represents something that leaves the memorized traces in the "lifeworld".

Haiganus Preda-Schimek, Vienna
Austrian Composers and the Europeanization of Romanian Music Between 1800 and 1859
During the first decades of the nineteenth century and particularly after 1821 the Ottoman suzerainty decreased in the Romanian Principalities, and in 1859 was with the unification of Walachia and Moldavia established a new state of Romania. Throughout the nineteenth century the oriental Greek-Turkish way of life, mentality, and organisation coexisted in this region together with Western tendencies adopted from the French, Italian, and German/Austrian cultures. A significant social and cultural transformation and, in a certain way, a phenomenon of acculturation occurred either through the efforts of Romanian scholars who studied in Paris, Rome, Vienna, and Berlin, or was adopted from the foreigners who worked in Romania. Although among them were several musicians of Austrian and Bohemian/Moravian origin, activities such as composition in Western musical system, choral and orchestral conducting, collecting of folk melodies, and direction of musical theatre were not professionalized at the time. The first forms of Western musical life were established in Bucharest and Jassy by Johann Andreas Wachmann, Ludwig Wiest, Eduard Hübsch, and Franz Rouszitska, who founded music institutions and educated musicians who will later overstep their enthusiastic beginnings. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Romanian musicians, as Eusebius Mandyczewski, studied in Vienna and made brilliant careers there. The paper will analyse the historical, political, and social frame in which this cultural transfer occurred; the synthesis between the national element and the Romantic compositional style; the creation of some relevant composers, with musical samples. In fact, the process of Europeanization from before 150 years seems to be quite similar to the present time, as former communist countries reintegrate themselves in the European system, looking for a new synthesis between the local specificities and the western civilization, including the contrasts and creative impulses which generate this fruitful change.

Selena Rakočević, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
From Field to Text: The Mystery of veliko banatsko kolo
One of the most popular dances of the Serbian part of Banat is veliko kolo. In the study from 1891, Antal Hadžić provided the earliest descriptions of dancing in southern Hungary, which is identical with the description of the dance marked as veliko kolo made by the Janković sisters in 1949. In Serbian ethnochoreological literature this dance is not mentioned again before 1990. In the first volume of the edition Folk Dances of Serbia the choreographer Dobrivoje Putnik documented veliko banatsko kolo, which has a microstructure different than in previous descriptions and its form was completely fixed with published musical accompaniment. László Felföldi described veliko kolo in the book Dancing Tradition of Serbs in Morich and Dick Crum indicated that in the Croatian and Serbian communities of the eastern U.S. one of the "old-time kolos" was veliko kolo. The recent fieldwork research shows that veliko kolo does not exist in the contemporary practice of Banat.
There are just few testimonies that veliko kolo "was danced on the left". However, the folk dance ensembles performed veliko kolo all over Banat during the last several decades, as it was documented by Dobrivoje Putnik. The aim of this paper is not to give definite conclusions about dancing tradition of banatsko veliko kolo, but to offer possible answers on the questionable representations of this particular dance.

Bianca Robichaud, Conservatoire de Musique Francis Poulenc, Paris
French Classicism: Myth or Reality?
The musical and cultural memory in France was built over a desire of protection of the French Classicism. Strongly inspired by the literary rules of the time of Louis XIV and asserting a clearness, an order and a rigour in opposition to "the musical obscurantism" of the other nations, the French Classicism has been more than once in the heart of the esthetical conflicts in this country. Already at the time of the Querelle des Bouffons, this aesthetic argument was used in order to oppose and defend the French style from the Italian style, considered to be "excessive" and "pretentious". This valorisation of the French Classicism appeared once more in the discourse of the defenders of the French style at the end of the nineteenth century and after World War I. This time, the aesthetic enemy wasn't coming from the south but beyond the Rhine.
French "clearness", considered as a heritage of the French Classicism, was to be protected from the German aesthetic invasion and its Romanticism described as "obscure" and "revolutionist". Closely related to the question of a national protection and the construction of a French nationalism, the defense, the valorisation, and the memory of the French Classicism cannot be studied without its social, historical, and political context. This lecture will precisely try to clarify this question surrounding the stylistic existence of the French Classicism, in order to see whether it is a reality or a myth.

Anica Sabo, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
A Contemporary Reading of Original Principles of the Study of Musical Forms
Analyses of current methodological issues in the study of musical forms have opened up the possibility for a new reading of Adolf Bernhard Marx's works. This paper will examine the ways of reviving Marx's original methodological principles and point to the possibilities of combining them with new analytical techniques.

Katya Slutskaya-Levine, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York
Schnittke's Opera "Žizn' s idiotom": Marking out the Dead Zones of Russian Culture
Alfred Schnittke's opera Žizn' s idiotom ("Life with an Idiot", 1990-1991) continues to instill in its audience a sense of aesthetic shock years after the curtain went down on the socialist commedia and the corresponding flowers of the culture of resistance withered away. The opera's plot, based on Viktor Erofeev's Brežnev stagnation-time story of the same name, tells of a family enslaved and destroyed by the Idiot Vova, whom they adopt from a madhouse as a measure of punishment for their lack of compassion. The allusions to propagandist slogans and the clichés from the hypocritical Soviet literary and musical genres that draw parallels between Vova and Lenin produced interpretations, which identify the opera's parable as a caricature of Russia's twentieth-century political reality, but fail to recognize its broader cultural context.
In his text and subsequent operatic libretto, Erofeev effectively takes to the absurd the characters and concepts from Russian classical literature and the evergreen stereotypes from Russia's traditional culture by playing around with national and moral taboos. Schnittke enlarges Erofeev's theme of the destroyed personal conscience by creating a version of fragmentary composition based on counterpoint of Russian revolutionary and folk songs, as well as bizarre utterances containing varied semantic and emotional content. In coordination with shocking dramatic situations, the complex process of stylistic interpenetration and confrontation of songs and other vocalizations, aided by curious voice leading and orchestration, facilitates the regeneration of songs' meaning and erases the clear dividing lines between life and death, laughter and tears, and moralizing tendencies and sacrilege.

Ivana Stamatović, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
New Music in Belgrade in the Light of the Cycle "The Musical Moderne": Radio Belgrade's Cultural Politics from the 1960s
Following a certain isolatoin of the art world in ex-Yugoslavia during the period after World War II and in the first half of the 1950s, artistic life gradually started opening itself toward current avanguard flows of the time. The important part of that process was the presentation of new (avant-garde) music, which was first institutionalized with the founding of the Zagreb Music Biennale in 1961. In Belgrade was new music presented, although very rarely, within regular concert seasons. Its first continual and, in regard of program and conception, consistent presentation in the capital's cultural life started in February of 1967, when Radio Belgrade established on its Third Programme a cycle of concerts/platforms entitled Music Today, renamed next year to The Musical Moderne. Until 1969 the cycle consisted of a musical performance and a public discussion which envolved outstanding domestic music critics, composers and performers. Later on, public discussions were canceled, but the musical part of the cycle was continiued for the next 15 years. In this article I explore the context and conditions of presentation of new music in the light of concepts, outputs and reception of the cycle The Musical Moderne in the Belgrade milieu on the basis of the testimonies of the persons professionally involved with this cycle, published musical hronicles and reviews, as well as Radio Belgrade's archive and documentary sources.

Leon Stefanija, Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta
Globalizing Musical Identities: Remarks on Semiotics of Music
The theory of musical topics, as was proposed by Leonard Ratner in his book Classical Music (1980) and has been ever since elaborated by different scholars of semiotics as well as hermeneutics of music (for instance, by Raymond Monelle, Robert S. Hatten, and Lawrence Kramer), is founded on historical-theoretical as well as on wider issues on perception and cognition of the musical structures.
Although music semioticians and hermeneuticians are concentrating, at this point, rather on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and other musical styles and epochs seem to be less attractive for their observations, semiotical concepts can be seen as universal analytical models, as it is the case in this paper. The main focus of this contribution is confined to the question of potential usefulness of the semiotic approaches for musicological analysis, since it helps, as Robert S. Hatten points out for the "theory of gestures" (one of the facets of the theory of topics), to "bridge the gap in the unnecessary opposition 'musical structure or expression'". The article deals with the process - and categories - of defining bridges, of "bridging the gap" between the formal analysis and analysis of the context(s) of a musical text, from which different "contents" and "expressions" can be grasped.

Ksenija Stevanović, Radio-Beograd, Treći program, Beograd
The Architecture of (Sonic) Memory in Sokurov's Films
In past few years Russian director Aleksandr Sokurov has been making a series of films dedicated to the great dictators/political figures of twentieth century, under the name Men of Power. This envisaged tetralogy has three complete parts - films dedicated to the lives of Hitler (Moloch), Lenin (Taurus/Telec), and the Japanese emperor Hirohito (Sun), while the last one will be dealing with Goethe's and Mann's Faust story. In all of these works music-sonic component plays a significant role intertwined with visual and verbal part of the movie. Some interesting issues arise from this particular usage of sound-image-language structures namely the characteristic architectural notion of the memory explored in Sokurov's tetralogy. This problematic is opening up to a biopolitical approach concerning the regulation of political as regulation and power over archive of living and new-coming life-forms.

Dragana Stojanović-Novičić, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Iannis Xenakis (1922-2001) - "Why" and "What" in his "Late Years"
This paper is an outline of some aspects of the late opus of Iannis Xenakis. At the moment when his reputation was completely (and world-wide) established, he decided to "clean" his language and reduce it to some sort of music "essence". What was the profile of that "essence"? What was the late Xenakis's language? The answers on those questions are in close connection with Xenakis' reflections on art, music and life.

Cornelia Szábo-Knotik, Institut für Analyse, Theorie und Geschichte der Musik der Universität für Musik Wien
"The National" in Germanophone Musicology
One of the most important and most prominently discussed question of our time is the search for the definition of identity, in terms of personal choices as well as in relation to building community and states. Fueled by the need both to orientate in an increasingly globalized world and to find stability in times of rather rapidly changing conditions, this search is not only an answer to recent developments but also understandable as a revival of the most fundamental characteristic of nineteenth-century European socio-culture.
Musicology as a discipline is deeply rooted in these phenomena and has therefore contributed a lot by historical research to form national identities by establishing heroes, inscribing memorials to the city-scapes and developing rites of veneration. And it was especially the German-speaking world where the image of the national was described as a universally valid music culture and thus defined as mainstream in opposite to the marginalized so-called "national schools" of other countries with the aim to strengthen hegemonial claims.
Facing this context, this paper will analyze this tradition of Germanophone national music history and ask which meanings the terms "tradition" and "progress" have for a music culture that is divided into "nationally" and "universally" valid genres, styles, and forms respectively. It is important to stress that it is not the task of this paper to state a new relevance of writing music history under the aspects of nationalism, but to describe the contributions of music history writing for the formation and establishment of these categories, considering at the same time the resulting consequences for our research.

Miško Šuvaković, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Remembering Music: Critical Questions on New, Historicism and History of Music
In this short essay I will discuss the conditions of applying protocols and procedures of new historicism on interpretation of music. The goal is to show how "meanings" of and from music are built as narratives related to the construction of history of musical work of art, composer, performer, and listener. The focus of attention is on the relation between of narrative of music and narrative of politics. The case study will be dedicated to the orientation to fascism of Igor Stravinsky and the performance of Jewish identity of John Zorn.

Olivera Vasić, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Contemporary Celebration Party's Dance Characteristics
Wherever nowadays celebration parties took place they have some kind of sustained cliché. It does not matter is it a wedding, birthday party, moving to a new house party, or celebration of the "firm's day", the dance is omnipresent but conditioned by tastes and wishes of its carriers. These dances however are quite unusual for the twenty-first century - poor (small) repertory, simplified dance patterns, rarely recognizable dance styles, and its musical accompaniment must confirm the dancer's identity. The question arises whether at the beginning of this century dance in Serbia returns to some kind of "fore-beginning" or this is the reflection of present state of our society, and all that in times when kinetic communication achieves high results?

Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Musicology Between a National and International Musical Culture
In this text I consider the nature and ways in which musicology contributes - or should contribute - to the definition of a national musical culture, in times of intense cultural crossover and interchange. This exploration is carried out from the aspect of possible relationships between the language in which a musicological writing is accomplished and the subject matter examined in this writing. The aim of the investigation is to show that the role of a national musicology in the building, developing, preserving and promoting of a national musical culture to which this musicology belongs is incomplete until it becomes an integral part of international communication relationships.

Ivana Vuksanović, Univerzitet umetnosti, Fakultet muzičke umetnosti, Beograd
Vis comica: Musical Comedies in Serbia During the Sixties
Intensive breakthrough of popular music into Serbian culture during the 1960s, resulted with several stage works of peculiar genre features. Two of them, Majstori su prvi ljudi (Craftsmen are Top People, Jovan Putnik after Kosta Trifković) composed by Dušan Kostić and Ljubav, to je glavna stvar (Love, That is the Principal Thing, Molière) composed by Dušan Radić, represented combination of operetta, song-play/Singspiel, musical, and opera buffa. As the main body of every humorous structure - whether a narrative, a situation, an image - is based on some degree of absurdity, illogicality, or vioaltion of expectation, tracing incongruity in both of these comedies would be indispensable analitical method.

Amy Lynn Wlodarski, Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania
National Identity After National Socialism: "Jüdische Chronik" and East German Cultural Memory
In 1960, five composers from the Federal Republic of Germany [FRG] and the German Democratic Republic [GDR] collaborated on the Holocaust cantata, Jüdische Chronik. The work remembered a series of anti-Semitic acts ranging from Kristallnacht to Nazi torture tactics in the Warsaw Ghetto. The premieres were set for 1961, but the erection of the Berlin Wall delayed them until 1966. After the concerts, media responses revealed the specific commemorative cultures in both states and the acerbic nature of West-East relations. Most Western critics panned the Chronik while the Eastern critics portrayed this negative reception as evidence of the FRG's continued ties to fascism.
In 1988, the GDR resurrected the Chronik as the cultural centerpiece of its inaugural commemoration of Kristallnacht. The performance represented a new phase of GDR history in that the state openly acknowledged its role in the Holocaust. In more private arenas, however, the GDR continued to propagate the myth that the burden of the Holocaust belonged solely to the FRG. This was especially true in the music educational system, in which the Chronik figured prominently in the curriculum as an example of the GDR's presumed moral and cultural superiority over the FRG.
This paper explores how the GDR used Jüdische Chronik to promote its postwar national agenda and to foster a politicized remembrance of the Holocaust among its citizens. I consider how the specific commemorative cultures of 1966 and 1988 conditioned the work's reception and investigate whether the GDR was reluctant to accept the "Jewish Chronicle" as their own a mere two years before reunification.

Ameneh Youssefzadeh, Paris
Singing the Martyrs: Revolutionary and Patriotic Songs in the Repertoire of Khorasani Bards
After the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran and around the Iran/Iraq war (1980-1988), many verses commemorating those events were created. In Khorasan, the northeastern region of the country, numerous bards composed songs praising "The Martyrs," "The Revolution," "The Mobilization," in Kurmanji Kurdish, Persian, Khorasani Turkish, and Turkmen (the languages of the different ethnic groups cohabiting in the region). Indeed, such "revolutionary and patriotic songs and hymns" were for a while the only genre of music allowed on Iranian Radio and Television.
My paper examines this genre in the repertoire of the Khorasani bards and compares it with a similar one, popular in the country at the beginning of the twentieth century during the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1906. Since such a musical production tends to relate to a very specific moment of historical significance, its memory often fades away when it looses its actuality or relevance. In today's Khorasan, bards do not consider this genre as a part of their repertoire. This paper also presents the official "cultural policy" of the Iranian government regarding this type of musical output - noting that the attitude of most Iranian governments has always been that music can be the best instrument of state propaganda.


Senior Editor

Seitenwechsel. Geschichten vom Fußball. Hgg. v. Samo Kobenter u. Peter Plener. Wien: Bohmann 2008, 237 pp.
(Weitere Informationen hier)
Transcarpathica. Germanistisches Jahrbuch Rumänien 3-4/2004-2005. Hgg. v. Andrei Corbea-Hoisie u. Alexander Rubel. Bukarest/Bucuresti: Editura Paideia 2008, 336 pp.
[Die online-Fassung meines Einleitungsbeitrags "Thesen zur Bedeutung der Medien für Erinnerungen und Kulturen in Mitteleuropa" findet sich auf Kakanien revisited (Abstract / .pdf).]
Seitenweise. Was das Buch ist. Hgg. v. Thomas Eder, Samo Kobenter u. Peter Plener. Wien: Bundespressedienst 2010, 480 pp.
(Weitere Informationen hier wie da, v.a. auch do. - und die Rezension von Ursula Reber findet sich hier [.pdf].)
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